Key skills: simulation modeling, ecological risk assessment, aquatic ecology, monitoring design, adaptive management, decision analysis, facilitation, team leadership
David is an aquatic ecologist with 30 years of experience in predicting and assessing the potential impacts of human activities on ecosystems, and developing plans to rehabilitate damaged ecosystems and recover threatened biota. His academic background includes an Honours B.E.S. (Environmental Studies and Mathematics) from the University of Waterloo, and an M.Sc. in Zoology from the University of British Columbia. During his career he has led or contributed to multi-agency, interdisciplinary teams assessing the impacts of acidic deposition, pulp mills, forestry, hydro-electric dams, fish harvesting, power plants, climate change and urban/industrial pollution in North America, South America and Asia. More recently, his work has focused on how dams and flow management affect salmon and other species in California (Clear Creek, Trinity River, Sacramento River), the Pacific Northwest (U.S. Columbia Basin) and British Columbia (Cheakamus, Okanagan, Canadian Columbia Basin). His efforts have contributed significantly towards the development and implementation of creative, effective approaches for recovering salmon populations, managing water to meet multiple objectives, habitat restoration, adaptive management and monitoring / evaluation. David is the author of over 20 peer-reviewed publications, is an Adjunct Professor at the School of Resource and Environmental Management at Simon Fraser University, and serves on science advisory panels for Puget Sound and Platte River ecosystem recovery efforts. He is a recipient of the Bronze Medal for Commendable Service from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. He is an avid skier and hiker, and proud father of two talented sons.
Key skills: decision and trade-off analysis, simulation modelling, technical facilitation, information system architecture and project management.
Clint is an integration specialist focused on decision and trade-off analysis methods for aquatic resource management problems. Focal areas include trade-off evaluations for reservoir operations, climate change adaptation, water budget studies and large-scale watershed restoration programs in Western North America. Many of his projects involve technical facilitation and the development of computer tools, such as the Premier’s Award winning Okanagan Fish/Water Management Tool, and the Sacramento River Ecological Flows Tool. Clint has over 14 years of consulting experience with ESSA Technologies Ltd, and holds a B.Sc. in Ecology from the University of British Columbia and a Masters in Resource and Environmental Management from Simon Fraser University. He enjoys grappling with global environmental conscientisation, good satire and coaching lacrosse.
Key skills: adaptive management, decision analysis , policy analysis, facilitation and public consultation, environmental mediation, environmental and cumulative effects assessment
Since joining ESSA in 1982, Lorne’s consulting practice has focused on developing evidence-based approaches to environmental management through support of Adaptive Management research designs, and environmental risk analysis. Ecological modeling is an essential component of this work. Much of Lorne’s work has involved collaborative analysis with multi-disciplinary groups of scientists, resource managers, aboriginal participants and stakeholders. Lorne is a highly accomplished facilitator with 27 years of experience guiding multi-agency scientific meetings and workshops. His facilitation expertise is also applied in his work on environmental conflict resolution, and facilitation of public advisory groups. Examples of some of Lorne’s experience include: a conceptual ecosystem model of the Lake Ontario fish community; a model based management approach to the Sea Lamprey control program in the Great Lakes; decision analyses for American eel in the Great Lakes; Pathways of Effects models for Fisheries and Oceans Canada; and advice to the Mackenzie Gas Project Joint Review Panel on matters related to cumulative impact assessment.
Key skills: adaptive management, state of environment reporting, environmental assessment, workshop facilitation, training, decision support
Carol is a Registered Professional Biologist and Environmental Management Team Leader with ESSA. She holds a B.Sc. in Biology from McGill University and an M.Sc. in Zoology from the University of Toronto. She has over 22 years of experience across a wide range of environmental management projects in nine countries, and has managed more than 100 projects both domestically and internationally. Adaptive management is a major focus of her career, and she recently led a project to prepare an Adaptive Management Plan in New Mexico’s Middle Rio Grande. Her work in this field has included researching factors that enabling adaptive management, design and delivery of numerous training workshops, review of adaptive management plans, and co-authoring several book chapters and papers on adaptive management. Carol also has more than two decades of experience with indicator development and reporting. She wrote the Plants and Animals chapter for the first state-of-environment report for BC, has since written numerous environmental indicator products in BC and elsewhere, and has also trained environmental professionals overseas in state-of-environment reporting. A third focal area involves environmental assessment: she has undertaken numerous technical reviews of environmental assessments, developed training courses for both federal and provincial practitioners, and helped raise awareness of the environmental assessment process among First Nations. Current passions include exploration of how the intersection of these fields can improve cumulative effects assessment, and inform climate change adaptation; and methods for incorporating traditional knowledge into related decision-making. She lives on a small island along the BC coast with her husband and dog.
Director of International Operations
Key skills: Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, cumulative effects assessment, environmental management, risk management, policy, climate change, International Financial Institutions (IFI) environmental and social safeguards
Greg has over 20 years project and consulting experience in over 50 countries covering many diverse sectors including the mining, oil and gas, power (hydro, thermal, wind), infrastructure, manufacturing, natural resources and financial sectors. He is a global expert in the design, implementation and quality assurance of global environmental and social sustainability policies and standards. He is the former Director of the Environment, Social and Governance Department at the International Finance Corporation (IFC). IFC is the private sector lending arm of the World Bank Group and he was the lead environmental expert responsible for ensuring effective environment, social and governance risk management on hundreds of IFC investments annually through the application of the IFC Performance Standards and World Bank Group Environment, Health & Safety (EHS) Guidelines. Greg was responsible for leading the multi-year review and update process of the new 2012 IFC Performance Standards. In addition, he led the IFC climate change mitigation and adaptation unit. He is also the former Chief Environmental Advisor at Export Development Canada (EDC) which is an $80 billion annual Export Credit Agency and signatory to the Equator Principles that lends globally to public and private sector clients.
In addition to international project experience, Greg has extensive experience in climate change mitigation and adaptation, natural resources management, policy development, training and capacity building. Extensive stakeholder and outreach experience includes corporate and project engagement with locally affected communities, indigenous peoples, and civil society. Greg holds an M.Sc. in Environmental Management and has five years of university academic experience lecturing in the field of Environmental and Social Impact Assessment.
Applications Specialist / Science Writer
Key skills: technical writing and editing, research, information management
Diana is a researcher and technical writer at ESSA, with experience and expertise in science writing, technical editing, and information management. Since joining ESSA in 1995, Diana’s work has included literature reviews; information gathering, synthesis/analysis and presentation; writing “how-to” guidelines for custom software products; recording and reporting the proceedings of workshops and technical meetings; and data and database management. Her skills are cross-cutting and she has applied them in a wide variety of disciplines, including environmental assessment, cumulative effects assessment, fish and wildlife ecology, forestry, and land-use planning. Diana brings to her project work a unique blend of ecological knowledge, writing and editing expertise, and an attention to detail that ensures her work products are always of the highest quality. Diana holds an Honours B.Sc. in Biology from Queen’s University and an M.Sc. in Zoology from the University of Western Ontario.
Senior Systems Ecologist
Key skills: forest ecosystem and natural disturbance modelling, carbon budget modelling, workshop facilitation
Sarah is a Registered Professional Biologist and Senior Systems Ecologist with almost 20 years experience in ecological simulation modeling and analysis. She holds a B.A. in Mathematics and Biology from Kalamazoo College, and a M.Sc. in Zoology/Applied Mathematics from the University of British Columbia. While at ESSA, Sarah has been the lead or co-developer for numerous models that simulate ecosystem dynamics at a variety of scales. These models cover a range of issues from natural disturbances at the stand level (e.g., fire or root disease) to spatial and non-spatial landscape simulation models such as TELSA and VDDT. She has also worked extensively developing and using carbon accounting models such as the CBM-CFS3. In addition, she has led numerous workshops discussing issues ranging from dynamics of fire or bark beetles, to impacts of climate change, to different long-term planning strategies.
Senior Environmental Specialist
Key skills: climate change, adaptation planning, monitoring and evaluation, policy, human environment, multi-stakeholder engagement and capacity development
Samantha is an environment and climate change specialist with experience in Asia/Pacific, Africa, Latin America and North America. To date, her work has spanned private sector, government and non-government organizations, and has included the review of climate change adaptation tools, plans and strategies; vulnerability assessment of climate change impacts; the development of monitoring and evaluation frameworks for adaptation and low carbon development; and the facilitation of workshops and other participatory stakeholder engagement processes when planning for adaptation. She has advised on climate change adaptation both internationally and domestically across Canada, working with clients that have included the World Bank, African Development Bank, Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), and Environment Canada. She is currently leading ESSA’s international climate change adaptation projects in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, while supporting ESSA’s domestic climate change practice.
Samantha holds a B.Sc. in Environmental Sciences from the University of Guelph and an M.Sc. in Water Science, Policy and Management from the University of Oxford (UK).
Senior Systems Analyst
Key skills: GIS analysis and programming, databases, web mapping, data portals, data synthesis
Katherine approaches complex systems problems using GIS and databases to promote problem understanding and inform resource management decisions. Since joining ESSA in 2008, her work has spanned projects involving GIS analysis to describe and predict the occurrence of salmon and trout species in the Pacific Northwest; the development of the TELSA Spatial Tools, a suite of custom ArcGIS tools used with the TELSA model (a landscape-level model for simulating ecosystem dynamics); GIS analysis to explore the impacts of environmental stressors on freshwater ecosystems; and development on the Trinity River Restoration Program’s Online Data Portal. Katherine holds a B.Sc. (Hons) in Natural Resources Conservation from the University of British Columbia and an Advanced Diploma of Technology (Hons) in Geographic Information Systems from the British Columbia Institute of Technology. Katherine is currently working towards a Masters in GIS and Sustainability Management from the University of Washington.
Key skills: GIS, spatial analysis, data visualisation, web mapping, remote sensing, spatial databases, programming
Simon is a geospatial specialist who’s work focuses on using spatial data to inform decisions and answer questions. Simon’s recent work at ESSA has included developing an ecological land metric in support of monitoring land use changes for tracking environmental impacts; GIS analysis as part of a fish habitat monitoring program for designated Fisheries Sensitive Watersheds in BC; and GIS analysis in support of ecological modeling of a reservoir ecosystem. Prior to joining ESSA, Simon worked as a Remote Sensing and GIS Scientist in the UK extracting information from satellite imagery for environmental monitoring and security, and developing spatial data driven web services using remote sensing and GIS products.
Simon holds a B.Sc. in Geography from the University of Sheffield (UK) and a M.Sc. in Remote Sensing from University College London (UK) with a thesis that explored the production of digital elevation models of Mars using high resolution data from the HRSC onboard Mars Express.
Key skills: aquatic ecology, data synthesis, analysis and visualization, statistical and simulation modeling, research and technical writing, experimental design
Brendan has a B.Sc. in Biology from the University of Victoria, a Ph.D. in Ecology from Simon Fraser University, and before coming to ESSA was a Postdoctoral Fellow in the School of Resource and Environmental Management at Simon Fraser University. Much of Brendan’s work focuses on the statistical modeling and simulation of complex ecological processes to inform policy, management, and conservation. Recent examples of his work include: (1) quantitative assessment of the cumulative influence of anthropogenic and environmental stressors on Fraser River sockeye salmon, (2) pairing field work and experiments with modeling of salmon population dynamics to quantify the individual and population level consequences of pathogen transmission from farmed to wild salmon, (3) assessment of enhancement activities on wild salmon dynamics and (4) adapting and applying tools from epidemiology to inform the development of indicators of conservation status and ecosystem health. Brendan’s research has been featured in both popular and scientific media including CBC, the Vancouver Sun and Science.
Brendan has experience providing scientific advice to a diverse audience including industry, First Nations, government, and academics. He has served as an expert witness for the Government of Canada’s Inquiry into the Decline of Sockeye Salmon in the Fraser River and the House of Commons Standing Committee on Fisheries and Oceans. He sits on the Board of Directors at Salmon Coast Field Station and routinely gives seminars, guest lectures and public presentations on the ecology and conservation of salmonids. Brendan is an outdoor enthusiast and fisherman who lives in Vancouver and spends as much time as possible on the water with his wife, two children and dog.
Key skills: environmental impact assessment, environmental management, GIS analysis, water resources management
Patricia is an Environmental Specialist with experience in Africa, Europe, Latin America and North America working on projects in the agribusiness, extractive, infrastructure, and natural resources management sectors. She has experience working for a wide-range of private and public sector clients including the Inter-American Development Bank, Equator Principles banks, and the World Bank. Her main areas of experience include agribusiness, water resources management, environmental impact assessment and management, climate change adaptation, environmental modeling and decision-support. She has computer proficiency in environmental (StellaR) and hydraulic and hydrology (HEC-RAS/HMS, MIKE) modeling tools, GIS applications (ArcGIS/View, IDRISI).
Patricia holds a B.Eng. Agricultural Engineering, M.Sc. in GIS, and a M.Sc. Integrated Water Resources Management. She is a native Spanish speaker and is fluent in English and proficient in French.
Senior Climate Change Specialist
Key skills: climate change, adaptation planning, policy analysis, stakeholder engagement and outreach, monitoring and evaluation, social innovation, gender-based analysis, report writing and editing, organizational learning
Jimena is a climate change specialist with 10 years of experience in providing research, analysis and advice to inform climate change policy and programming decisions by the federal government. As a former policy advisor at the now-defunct National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy she led policy research and engaged stakeholders from different sectors on the economic risks and opportunities of climate change for Canada. Her advice on infrastructure adaptation to climate change in Canada’s North contributed to the creation of the Northern Infrastructure Standardization Initiative, an initiative led by the Standards Council of Canada with support from Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. At Natural Resources Canada she designed the performance management framework for a $35 million program to develop Regional Adaptation Collaboratives and tools for adaptation. Jimena is passionate about strengthening institutions as a way to help people make better, more equitable decisions and has volunteered on targeted projects with Cuso International in Nigeria and Peru to pursue that passion.
Jimena holds a B.Sc. in Geology from Georgia State University, an M.Sc. in Geology from the University of Western Ontario, a Master’s in Resource and Environmental Management from Simon Fraser University and is about to complete a graduate diploma in Social Innovation from the University of Waterloo.
Key skills: decision analysis, data synthesis and analysis, GIS, climate change
Alex is Systems Ecologist with ESSA Technologies. Prior to joining ESSA, Alex worked as a research assistant with Environment Canada (Meteorological Service, Vancouver), the Centre for Research on Inner City Health (Toronto), and the Geospatial Data Research Laboratory (SFU), applying data synthesis and analysis, GIS, literature review, and scientific writing skills to a diversity of research topics. Alex has published peer-reviewed analytical research in the fields of both climate change and population health. His interests include integrating knowledge across disciplines to better understand multi-dimensional ecological problems and make better resource management decisions in the face of multiple objectives and stakeholders, uncertainties, and trade-offs.
Alex holds a BSc in Physical Geography with a Certificate in Spatial Information Systems and a Masters in Resource and Environmental Management, all at SFU. His thesis work uses the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) to examine the medium-term greenhouse gas implications of burning post-harvest forest debris on Vancouver Island.
Key skills: Ecological modeling, data synthesis and analysis, statistical modeling, research and technical writing, programming
Brian holds a B.Sc. in Biological Sciences majoring in ecology and evolution from the University of Calgary, where he worked on population dynamics of Sage Grouse in Alberta; a M.Sc. in Zoology from the University of Toronto working on diet choice rules in one-predator-two-prey communities; and a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences at Simon Fraser University, where he worked on how behavioral responses of African mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae) can affect the spread of parasites leading to malaria in humans. Most recently, he was an NSERC Postdoctoral Fellow with Fisheries and Oceans Canada, sharing time between the Pacific Biological Station in Nanaimo, BC, and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, BC. During this time, he worked as an ecological modeler for a high-profile sockeye salmon genomics project, developing population models and Bayesian network models exploring the potential role of new technologies such as functional genomics on fisheries management.
Brian’s main interests lie in the coupling of individual-level responses to population-level consequences. He has extensive training in the design and implementation of mathematical, computer simulation, and statistical models that can be readily adapted to different ecological systems and applied problems. For example, his research has spanned terrestrial and aquatic systems including sockeye salmon abundance forecasting models, mosquito management models, and biological control (insects) in commercial greenhouses. Modeling approaches that Brian has used include mathematical compartmental models, individual-based simulation models, genetic algorithms, and Bayesian networks. Some of the statistical approaches that he has used include generalized linear models, principal component analysis, and model selection criteria. He has experience in a variety of programming and statistical software platforms including R, SAS, C, Python, and Mathematica.
Senior Systems Ecologist
Key skills: climate change adaptation, policy analysis, risk management, management frameworks, expert elicitation, facilitation.
Marc is a senior systems ecologist and business leader in climate change adaptation. His focus is in water science and management, in part due to the view that “if [climate change] mitigation is about CARBON, then adaptation is about WATER”. Work in this area requires applying hard analytical skills (risk management, structured decision making, and adaptive management) with softer skills of engagement (focus groups, workshop facilitation, structured surveys, interviews, and expert elicitation) to help improve environmental management in complex social-ecological systems. In doing so, his passion is to improve links among science, decision making, and policy by developing innovative management solutions that explicitly incorporate uncertainties and the interpretations, values, and behaviours of people in decision making. His experience in climate change adaptation has involved engaging a diversity of organizations examining climate impacts and developing adaptation actions, including local governments, First Nations, non-governmental organizations, as well as provincial and federal government agencies. Some professional highlights include:
- Helping mobilize the current state of science and understanding of climate impacts, assess climate change adaptation needs, and enhance resilience for a diverse set of organizations;
- Engaging diverse audiences (through the use of facilitation, interviews, and/or expert elicitation) to explicitly include the views and values of contrasting perspectives into decision making;
- Developing risk assessment / risk management frameworks to help various organizations manage environmental impacts;
- Contributing to the development of environmental regulations designed to mitigate impacts of natural resource development and climate change on freshwater ecosystems (i.e., designation of Temperature Sensitive Streams and Fisheries Sensitive Watersheds); and
- Leading high profile research assignments receiving national media attention related to climate change, water resources, and freshwater ecosystems.
Marc holds a Bachelor of Science in Ecology and Environmental Biology from the University of British Columbia and a Master’s of Resource Management from Simon Fraser University. He is also a Registered Professional Biologist with British Columbia’s College of Applied Biology.
Programmer / Analyst
Key skills: physical modeling, GIS, geomorphology, computer programming, applied ecology, remote sensing
Nick is a programmer/analyst with a background in ecology and spatial statistics. He holds a M.Sc. in Physical Geography with a specialization in Remote Sensing and a B.Sc. in Geomatics from Carleton University. To date at ESSA, Nick’s work has focused on applying technical solutions to a wide range of multi-objective problems in natural and urban ecosystems (e.g. habitat analysis, cumulative impacts assessment, human development impacts, and climate change). Nick specializes in the use of modern technologies and quantitative methods in order to identify project requirements and facilitate the design and implementation of relevant technological solutions.
Nick is involved in an ongoing and extensive GIS-based analysis of physical watershed attributes as a means of determining habitat condition and suitability across British Columbia. He is also involved in the continuing development of the desktop software packages, and client/public-facing web technologies focused on allowing scientists and decision makers to assess environmental health across a variety of ecosystems.
Nick is particularly interested in international projects and those focused on remote environments where there exists potential for interesting and meaningful analyses using GIS and remote sensing methodologies.
Key skills: adaptive management, climate change adaptation, stakeholder engagement, spatial planning, behavioral and marine ecology, data synthesis and analysis, research and technical writing.
Erica holds a B.Sc. in Natural Resources from Cornell University and a Master in Resource Management from Simon Fraser University. For her master’s thesis Erica combined satellite telemetry and traditional and local knowledge to comprehensively investigate male loggerhead sea turtle movements in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Erica has worked to evaluate the marine spatial plan in Shark Bay for the Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation and developed ways to incorporate climate change adaptation into marine planning initiatives with the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society. With Resilient Consulting Group, she worked with government, industry and non-profits, gathering and documenting knowledge related to developing strategies for tackling complex resource management problems. Erica is interested in informing resource management decisions through applying innovative methodologies to provide insight into ecosystem dynamics. Erica currently lives in Vancouver where she enjoys paddling, camping, playing the ukulele, and playing hockey.
Senior Statistician / Systems Ecologist
Key skills: sampling design, design of experiment, simulation modeling, data analysis, and workshop facilitation.
Darcy is a Professional Statistician with over 12 years of applied statistical experience including most recently, five years applying statistical methods to ecological problems. She holds a B.Sc. in Statistics, minor in Ecology and a M.Sc. in Statistics from Simon Fraser University. Darcy has worked on a range of research projects involving study design, data analysis and simulation modeling, in British Columbia, Idaho, Montana, New York, Oregon and California. Recent analytical projects have involved: guidance for Wildlife Habitat Area effectiveness monitoring in BC, analysis of before after control impact data to inform decisions regarding the re-introduction of sockeye to the Coquitlam reservoir, developing fractional factorial designs to improve the efficiency of large fire management simulations, numerous fish related analyses (e.g. redd datasets, habitat suitability modeling, smolt outmigrant monitoring etc), and a simulation study to evaluate alternative monitoring plans for salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. She has helped to facilitate two large multi-year and multi-objective monitoring design projects: the Collaborative Systemwide Monitoring and Evaluation Project in the Columbia River Basin, and the Trinity River Restoration Program in California. Darcy enjoys working with people and helping to bridge the gap between biologists and statisticians. She believes it is very important to understand the data first hand and makes it a priority to get out in the field and get her hands dirty. In addition to her statistical expertise and facilitation experience, Darcy is educated in ecology and field techniques making her uniquely suited to integrate between the two domains.
Senior Systems Ecologist
Key skills: fisheries science, habitat modeling, fish/wildlife monitoring and evaluation, GIS analysis, EIA, statistical design and analyses, technical writing, facilitation
Marc is a Registered Professional Biologist and Systems Ecologist at ESSA with over 20 years experience in fisheries and wildlife sciences. He is particularly skilled in the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for integrating biological and physical information. Marc has a Bachelors degree in Wildlife Biology and a Master’s in Zoology, both from the University of Guelph. His projects at ESSA involve both analysis and technical facilitation, and recent work includes monitoring, evaluation and restoration plans for salmon, steelhead and bull trout in the Columbia Basin; development of a comprehensive adaptive management framework to evaluate the effects of restored river flows in California’s Trinity River on listed fish, birds, amphibians and reptiles; evaluating the effects of watershed restoration projects on salmon production; scoping the feasibility of restoring anadromous salmon to the Canadian reaches of the Upper Columbia River; and development of GIS-based models for describing and predicting occurrences of fish species in BC watersheds. He is also currently assisting in the development of a provincial-scale habitat monitoring program for designated Fisheries Sensitive Watersheds in BC. Before joining ESSA, Marc’s work experience included analyses of large scale inventory datasets of both fish populations and their habitat, and he was involved in a suite of field-based fisheries and wildlife research focused on the effects of BC logging practices. Additionally, Marc has undertaken fish and wildlife inventories throughout BC, Ontario, Alberta and the Yukon.
Key skills: ecosystem modeling, software development, GIS and statistical analysis
Frank holds a M.Sc. in Engineering from the Technical University of Denmark. He wrote his Master Thesis on Numerical Modelling of Mussel Growth at the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark, developing an ecological model of Blue Mussel growth on longline system in Sweden. The model included simulating hydrology, vertical water column mixing, nutrient cycles, algae and mussel growth. Frank has also utilized advanced spatial and statistical methods to analyze field data in ArcMap and Matlab. Amongst other activities, Frank has conducted fieldwork for Parks Canada, and completed work on several technical environmental topics for Alaska Fish and Game.
Senior Systems Ecologist
Key skills: ecosystem modelling, spatial modelling, forest growth and yield modelling, workshop facilitation
Don is a Registered Professional Biologist and Systems Ecologist with 20 years experience in ecological simulation modelling and analysis. He holds BSc and MSc degrees in Zoology from the University of British Columbia, with additional graduate studies at Cornell University. At ESSA his skills are applied to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem management problems requiring a combination of mathematical ecology, statistics and probability, and numerical methods.
Besides simulation modelling he is also very interested in multivariate visualization and in the development of user-oriented quantitative tools to enable and strengthen decision making for natural resource management. Don also has an ongoing interest in spatial modelling of natural systems and in the development of cross-scale approaches to spatial processes. Don has led and participated in numerous workshops to clarify and solve management problems having a large science component, and assisted in the development of technical approaches to develop science-based responses to resource management problems.